How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Thursday, 18 December 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Kieffer Dough and Gluten Extensibility Rig



Dough extensibility test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe KIEFFER DOUGH & GLUTEN EXTENSIBILITY RIG (A/KIE) was invented by Dr. Kieffer at the Kurt-Hess Institute, Munich, as an improved method for the accurate determination of dough and gluten extensibility.

Parallel tests of dough and gluten can reveal particular characteristics arising from homogenisation, long relaxation times or from adding oxidants, salts, emulsifiers or enzymes.






Monday, 15 December 2014

It’s time to perform Textural Magic! Part One

An introduction to Culinology, Texture and Molecular Gastronomy

Molecular gastronomy, originally a term coined to describe the scientific study of food and cooking, is now more associated with innovative modern cuisine.

Successful chefs have realised that to be at the top of their game they need to create new culinary experiences using a combination of unusual tastes, textures and theatrical twists to give the eating experience a new multi-sensory dimension. This is enabled by a variety of new high-tech equipment, adjusted traditional preparation techniques and a handful of clever chemicals.

Whilst molecular gastronomy has been the application of scientific principles to the understanding and improvement of small scale food preparation, a recent explosion in food technology and the demand for gourmet, nutritious and unique sensory experiences has created a new career opportunity called Culinology. This blends the training of a culinary arts chef with food science and nutrition education to form an exciting new highly desirable career path.

Thursday, 11 December 2014

Texture Analysis in action: Universal Syringe Rig

Syringe RIg test using the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser The innovative UNIVERSAL SYRINGE RIG* (A/USR) effectively measures the aspiration and extraction forces of syringe pistons.

The extraction force quantifies how easily the injectable material is expressed during syringe depression and material discharge. This measured force impacts patient comfort during injection and affects how the material is received when deposited under the skin.






Tuesday, 9 December 2014

Let's get cracking - tips and tricks for successful fracturability testing





Snapping a cracker
FRACTURABILITY is the tendency of a material to fracture, crumble, crack, shatter or fail upon the application of a relatively small amount of force or impact.

It is usually displayed by a product of high degree of hardness and low degree of cohesiveness and is commonly the textural property possessed by baked goods, snacks and generally 'dry' products. 

Fracturability encompasses crumbliness, crispiness, crunchiness and brittleness. A material is brittle if it is liable to fracture when subjected to stress. That is, it has little tendency to deform (or strain) before fracture and usually makes a snapping sound.



Assessing single point fracture

Sometimes you quite simply want to measure the force to break something in the middle.  Many products exist in a solid bar form and as such their snap strength or force to break – is of interest.

A Three Point Bend test mimics the breaking of the product in half by supporting a bar with guides positioned a suitable distance apart and pushing down centrally with a curved blade from the top. A low force is indicative of a product which requires little effort by the consumer to break whilst the distance at the break point indicates the degree of flexibility, or conversely brittleness, that the product possesses.

Three point bend tests on tablet and chocolate bar

Thursday, 4 December 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Blade Set



Blade and Warner-Bratzler Blade tests on the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe BLADE SET (HDP/BS*) comprises a Warner Bratzler blade, a reversible blade, a slotted blade insert and a blade holder. 

The reversible blade has a knife edge at one end and a flat guillotine edge at the other. In operation, the blade is firmly held by means of the blade holder which screws directly into the Texture Analyser. 

The slotted blade insert is located directly into the Heavy Duty Platform and acts as a guide for the blade whilst providing support for the product.

Tuesday, 2 December 2014

Application advice - comparing cutting/shearing accessories

We are often asked why there are so many different blade fixture options available from Stable Micro Systems.  

Our range of blades vary considerably in size, material, thickness and sharpness. In general they are used to measure the Bite/Cutting Force of products which in some instances can relate to their ‘Toughness’. The following guidelines may help in clarifying the potential use of each.

Thursday, 27 November 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Cheese Extensibility Rig



Cheese extensibility test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe CHEESE EXTENSIBILITY RIG (A/CE or A/CEA†) consists of a heat resistant vessel and double-sided fork probe. 

The vessel and fork assembly is filled with a known weight of cheese and microwaved (A/CE) or oven cooked (A/CEA) until the cheese is molten. 

A sample retaining insert is added to the vessel and the vessel/fork assembly slides into the fixture base, which is securely fastened to the Texture Analyser. The fork is connected to the load cell via a rapid locating adapter.
 

Tuesday, 25 November 2014

Tips and tricks for successful adhesion testing


Sticky soleThe most frequently used test procedure for measuring the range of adhesive properties in foods is the probe test.  

In this test, a probe applies a force over the sample for a chosen period of time to achieve a good bond between the two surfaces before it is withdrawn until the sample completely separates (failure). 

A vessel and disc as used in a back extrusion test are also suitable; however the disc would be employed to test the surface of the material rather than venture into the sample. 

One thing is clear, however; for successful adhesion testing the sample needs to be held down in order to measure the force to separate the sample from the probe. If the whole sample is lifted up of the end of the probe when it attempts to withdraw, the force that is measured will be the weight of the sample. 

Back Extrusion


In the case of samples that are not self-supporting this is usually solved by simply testing a small quantity or ensuring the vessel in which the sample is contained is not lifted by holding it.

Thursday, 20 November 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Lipstick Break Strength Rig



Lipstick break strength test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe LIPSTICK BREAK STRENGTH RIG (A/LC) enables a cantilever test on lipstick samples.

Lipstick is a moulded, solid fatty base containing dissolved and suspended colourants having a number of technical prerequisites. An important property sought by users is that the product must not bend, crumble, crack or break during application.

Selection of the correct base ingredient quantities, for example waxes of specific melting points, is such to formulate a product with moulded stick resilience, which possesses enough rigidity to withstand firm application to the lips by the user.



Tuesday, 18 November 2014

Ten ways to measure Cheese Texture

Cheese accounts for the largest proportion of overall volumes of production in the dairy sector. Here we present ten different ways in which the texture of cheese, in all of its variants, can be measured. 

See our video covering all these methods...

Thursday, 13 November 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Miniature Kramer/Ottawa Cell



Mini Ottawa cell test on a TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe MINIATURE KRAMER SHEAR/OTTAWA CELL (HDP/MK05* or HDP/MKS*) is particularly suited to reduce the force of bulk shearing/compression of multi particle products or non-uniform products.

It attaches to the HDP/90 Heavy Duty Platform. A 5-bladed head or compression platen can be attached to the arm of the texture analyser depending upon whether a shearing or bulk compression/extrusion test is required.



Tuesday, 11 November 2014

Tips and tricks for mucoadhesion testing

Stretching spaghetti from the bowlMucoadhesion is the process by which a drug delivery device is designed to stick to a part of the gut or other mucosae, thus delivering drug to a precise site in the body for an extended period.  

This gives more effective treatment of some diseases and can also protect drugs from some of the harsh conditions in the body. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems are used to treat several conditions in the mouth and have been investigated as treatments for stomach ulcers and cancer. 

The majority of infections affecting man and animals take place or start in mucous membranes. The ability to retain pharmacologically-active agents for extended periods of time on any mucosal epithelium, including those of the nose, mouth, rectum or vagina confers several potential therapeutic advantages.
 


Thursday, 6 November 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Kramer Shear Cell




Kramer Cell test on fish using the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser Two versions of the KRAMER SHEAR CELL (HDP/KS10 and HDP/KS5) are available.

The 10-bladed HDP/KS10 must be used with a 50Kg loadcell or greater.

The 5-bladed HDP/KS5 can be used with a 25Kg or 30Kg loadcell for soft products, but a 50Kg loadcell or greater is recommended.

Easy locating adapters ensure fast blade removal for cleaning and replacement or further testing. Cells have perspex front panels for precise positioning of the blades close to the sample, and easy removal for cell cleaning.

The cell is used for analysing multi-particle products such as cereals and pickles in sauce together with fruit and vegetables. This test applies a combination of compression, shearing and extrusion.



*Attachments with code prefix HDP/ must be used in conjunction with HDP/90 Heavy Duty Platform. 
   

Tuesday, 4 November 2014

Tips and tricks for successful tensile testing




Stretching spaghetti from the bowlTensile testing is less commonly used than compression testing, because it is more difficult to grip the sample in such a manner that a tensile load can be applied.  

If the ends of a bar of uniform cross-section are clamped, compression of the ends causes stress concentrations to develop, which promote failure in the vicinity of the clamp.

This problem is usually overcome by making the sample wider in the vicinity of the clamp and ideally the sample will fail at its narrowest point. Therefore stress is calculated from the minimum cross-sectional area (see diagram A).


Thursday, 30 October 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Spaghetti Flexure Rig



Spaghetti flexure test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe SPAGHETTI FLEXURE RIG (A/SFR) measures the compression and flexure characteristics of uncooked spaghetti, which are of interest when investigating any possible inherent weakness due to sprout damage of the durum wheat, or to incorrect drying procedures.

The test sample is located between upper and lower supports in centrally located holes. The upper support is directly connected to the loadcell and the lower support to the base of the texture analyser. Test samples of 100mm are prepared and the average force and distance to break is measured. 



Tuesday, 28 October 2014

Developing stable chocolate products for high temperature environments



Chocolate squares on spoon
Nestlé has followed in the footsteps of Mondelez and developed its own non-melting (or temperature tolerant) chocolate especially suited to emerging markets with hot climates.

Conventionally manufactured chocolate consists of sugars, cocoa solids and protein (usually from milk) homogeneously dispersed in fats and fatty substances originating from cocoa butter. Chocolate analogues contain other vegetable fats in partial/total replacement of the cocoa butter fat. Often the continuous fat phase also contains dairy fat.

Cocoa butter typically starts to soften at about 28°C, with consequent loss of the mechanical strength of the chocolate. This means that at the high ambient temperatures frequently encountered in tropical countries, chocolate becomes sticky or even runny. It tends to stick to the wrapper and fall apart when the wrapper is removed, leaving a semi-liquid mass that can often only be eaten with a spoon if cleanliness is desired.

Thursday, 23 October 2014

Texture Analysis in action: Metered Dose Inhaler test



Metered Dose Inhaler test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe METERED DOSE INHALER or MDI (A/IS) delivers a precise, reproducible dose of drug accurately to the deep lung. 

It is also well accepted by patients who depend on MDI’s in their treatment and therefore it is essential to constantly improve this technology. Patients need to rely on their inhaler to provide them with the required medication which is often at a crucial time when physical strength may be very low.

The metering valve, whose performance is assessed with this test, is a critical component of a finished metered-dose inhaler.

Tuesday, 21 October 2014

The Cake Freshness Lab – Perfecting Cake Science


Cake Freshness Lab screenThe Puratos Cake Freshness Lab: perfecting the science of putting time and freshness on your side!

Cake science is allowing major progress in extending the freshness and shelf life of packed cakes, and certain manufacturers are taking full advantage of this progress. What do they know that allows their cakes to retain freshness long after other cakes have staled?

The Cake Freshness Lab shares with you the secrets of more and longer freshness for all packed cakes. Delivering freshness solutions that help you increase consumer satisfaction and the profitability of your cakes is one of the most important things that Puratos does. 

Behind their freshness commitment, you’ll find one of most accomplished teams of food scientists, engineers, bakers and market experts in the cake industry.   

Thursday, 16 October 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Craft Knife and Extended Craft Knife




Cutting tests using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe CRAFT KNIFE ADAPTER (A/CKB) accommodates a standard 50mm wide craft blade and enables precision cutting of samples.

Hard products can be cut whilst providing a ‘disposable’ blade option if blade blunting is of concern. The blade thickness (0.6mm) enables precision cutting of very small samples (e.g. nuts, seeds) or shearing without compression of very soft or brittle samples (e.g. laminated pastry), or tablets, pastilles and many industrial products.

A high density polythene cutting block and 10 spare blades are provided.




Tuesday, 14 October 2014

Materials of the future and how to test them


A prototype self-folding robot developed at MIT
A prototype self-folding robot developed at MIT
In laboratories around the world, scientists are finding new ways to manipulate matter at increasingly small scales, as well as drawing inspiration from biological materials.

This revolution is giving us substances with properties that were once confined to the pages of science fiction books. But these materials are more than just scientific curiosities – they are genuinely useful, to the point that as applications start to emerge they will radically change our world.



Thursday, 9 October 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Dough Preparation Set




Dough Preparation Set componentsThe DOUGH PREPARATION SET (A/DP) is used to measure the characteristics of biscuit dough. 

The set comprises a test cell, aeration plunger and a flattening plunger. 

A sample is placed in the cell, pockets of randomly distributed air are removed by the spiked aeration plunger, and an even surface is achieved by application of the flattening plunger. 

A 6mm cylinder probe is used to measure the consistency of the dough. 



Tuesday, 7 October 2014

How to measure the texture of multi-textured foods



Biting into a soft-centred chocolateIt’s a routine part of every cuisine across the globe to introduce variety into the human diet through textures and flavours. 

One of the challenges of commercially manufacturing multi-textured foods is to keep the freshly created textures over a long period of time. Moisture and oil migration present difficulties and can result in a decrease of desirability as the expected sensory properties are altered. 

Some well-known multi-textured food examples include: pizza crust with sauce; ice cream in a crispy cone; baked pastry with fruit/meat filling; hard chocolates with liquid centres; chocolate covered nuts; and breakfast bars containing soft fruit.

Thursday, 2 October 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Volodkevich Bite Jaws


Tenderness test on chicken using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe VOLODKEVICH BITE JAWS (HDP/VB*) fixture performs an imitative test by simulating the action of an incisor tooth biting through food. 

It comprises of upper and lower jaws which are fitted to the loadcell and Heavy Duty Platform.

A sample is positioned in the lower jaw and the biting action is provided by the compressive movement of the upper jaw shearing into the test sample.

 

Tuesday, 30 September 2014

Edible film – create amazing “see-through’ recipes




Edible film canapé
Photo as shown on MolecularRecipes.com
In a recent blog post we highlighted that the market for edible films was yet to be tapped.  

Edible packaging has now definitely entered the playing field and is available for purchase online. So if you’re looking to create beautiful disappearing ravioli, clear canapés and edible cocktails then you’re going to love working with edible film.  

A favourite product of such great modernist chefs as Ferran Adria, these durable yet ultra-thin films are so versatile that food technologists will want to spend time just finding new ways to use them.  

Thursday, 25 September 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Crisp Fracture Support Rig



Crisp/chip fracture test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe CRISP FRACTURE SUPPORT RIG (HDP/CFS*)

This rig is used to measure the fracturability of snack foods and potato crisps (known in some countries as chips) by means of a penetration test.

It allows accurate location and quick alignment of the sample and is used with the Heavy Duty Platform.




Tuesday, 23 September 2014

Texture design of Breaded and Battered Foods


Breaded goujons
Batters and breadings provide value added visual, textural and sensory appeal to a variety of food products.

Deep fat or immersion frying is one of the common food processing systems used worldwide. Frying helps to set the coating and provides additional flavour and texture to the coated product. Designing the texture of breaded and battered foods takes into consideration several important factors known to affect the final food quality. 

Important parameters include ingredients selection, employment of appropriate processes, packaging and storage or product handling after preparation or cooking. Texture design also takes into account the physicochemical effect of the process on the ingredients to achieve the desired food microstructure and hence product texture.     


Thursday, 18 September 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Light Knife Blade and Cooked Pasta Quality/Firmness Rig


Light knife blade test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe LIGHT KNIFE BLADE (A/LKB) is one of several fixtures specifically designed for cutting tests.

It consists of a small perspex blade with a fitting that locates directly into the loadcell, and is used for small samples which require limited force to cut or break, such as pasta and noodles. 

The sample can be placed either on the HDP/90 Heavy Duty Platform, or directly on the base of the Texture Analyser. 

This blade is an ideal alternative to the Knife Edge blade, which is included in the Blade set.

Tuesday, 16 September 2014

The Textural Properties of Surimi

Surimi - amaboko sticks A predominant ingredient in the Orient is fish - used both fresh and comminuted as surimi fish mince.

Made for centuries by the Japanese and thought to date as far back as 1100AD, surimi is now spreading from Japanese to Western processed foods and is used to form extruded, shaped or cooked simulated shell-fish meat products such as crab, lobster, scallop or shrimp.

To gain consumer acceptance of imitation shell-fish, the texture, flavour and appearance of fresh shell-fish must be matched as closely as possible. 

This objective has successfully been achieved by Japanese processors, who produce surimi as an economic alternative to fresh fillets and imitation shell-fish which are barely distinguishable from the real thing. However, in the emulation of this success and creation of products with an authentic shell-fish texture, especially using surimi from non-Japanese species of fish, European food manufacturers are challenged. 

Thursday, 11 September 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Pizza Tensile Rig



Pizza toughness test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe PIZZA TENSILE RIG (A/PT) is comprised of two four-pronged components. 

The upper component fits directly to the loadcell and the lower to the base of the texture analyser. The rectangular shaped test sample is positioned on the attachments using the prongs. 

The tensile force and extension to break the sample is measured and used as an indication of pizza toughness.






Tuesday, 9 September 2014

Assessing haircare performance using texture analysis



Combing hair
'A new polymer generation offering truly multifunctional performance' is an article published by BASF in Germany.
After decades of development and improvement of hair styling polymers there is still room for improvement. Many generations of polymers have been developed over the years, starting from the first synthetic styling polymer – Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) – in the 1950s, based upon a patent from W. Reppe. 

Today’s styling formulations are further optimised by the use of polymer combinations. This is especially true for styling gel and wax formulations.

Thursday, 4 September 2014

Texture Analysis in action: The Adhesive Loop Test



Adhesive loop test using the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser The ADHESIVE LOOP TEST (A/LTS) provides a means of assessing probably the most important and yet the hardest to measure property of pressure sensitive materials, the tack. 

The test performs a loop tape method according to FINAT method no. 9. This allows the end user to compare the “initial grab” or “application tack” of different laminates and can be extremely useful to those working with automatic labelling equipment where this property is of particular importance.


Tuesday, 2 September 2014

Top five journals that focus on Food Texture Measurement

So you’re in the field of Food Texture Analysis? As a consumer, you’ll already appreciate that texture is a major determinant of food acceptance. 

You’ll no doubt want to keep up with the latest academic publications and scientific references in the field. 


Let me present the top 5 journals in our library that will help you remain a ‘Texture Expert’....

Thursday, 28 August 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Bread V Squeeze Rig



Loaf freshness test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe BREAD V SQUEEZE RIG (A/BSR†) enables testing of the softness and springiness of both packaged and unpackaged loaves, thereby giving a good indication of freshness.

A common way to test the softness of a loaf is by squeezing it between the thumb and fingers, creating a ‘V’ shape with the hand. The rig imitates this process and allows repeatable, scientific analysis of the freshness and appeal of bread. 





Tuesday, 26 August 2014

Testing for robotics design


Humanoid robotsA humanoid robot is being developed at the School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Massey University, New Zealand, for implementing and evaluating dynamic gait algorithms.

Force sensors are placed on the bottom of the feet of the robot to provide feedback for the control system. The use of resistive force sensors is being investigated as an inexpensive and lightweight alternative to multi-axis force/torque sensors. 

However, resistive force sensors have a more limited accuracy and response time. Sensors from three companies have been tested: Sensitronic, Interlink, and Inaba Rubber. 

Thursday, 21 August 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the TTC Spreadability Rig



Spreadability test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe TTC SPREADABILITY RIG (HDP/SR*) measures the ease with which a product, such as margarine and table spread, or wax, can be applied in a thin, even layer. 

It comprises of a male 90° cone probe and five precisely matched female perspex cone shaped product holders.

The material is either deposited and allowed to set up in the lower cone holders in advance of testing, or is filled with a spatula and then the surface levelled. The sample holders can be stored in frozen, refrigerated or ambient environments before testing of the sample.


Tuesday, 19 August 2014

Maximising meat texture – 3 popular ways to test meat


Meat texture is fundamental to consumer satisfaction
A CONVENIENT CONUNDRUM

Convenience is a key driver in the purchasing decision of today’s consumers. As they become increasingly time-poor, there is a surge in demand for easy-to-prepare foods. 


This is reflected in the success of the ready meals market which has flourished throughout Europe, even in countries where the home-cooked family meal has long been traditional. Benefitting, in particular, from the growth of the ready meals sector is the meat industry. 

In their quest for convenience, consumers are disinclined to compromise on food quality, which leaves manufacturers with the difficult task of balancing the two. Products must be reminiscent of ‘home cooking’, while being quick and easy to prepare. Although taste is a big concern, a product’s texture and mouthfeel is equally important to the consumer’s overall enjoyment. Undesirable texture can significantly reduce the appeal of ready meal foods, resulting in poor sales.

Thursday, 14 August 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Forward Extrusion Cell



Forward Extrusion test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe FORWARD EXTRUSION CELL (HDP/FE*) measures the compression force required for a piston disc to extrude a product through a standard size outlet in the base of the sample container. 

The sample container can accommodate base discs with outlet diameters of 3,5,7 or 10mm diameter, their selection depending upon the consistency of the sample. 

The complete sample container is located into a centralising insert fitted into the Heavy Duty Platform and a piston disc is attached to the loadcell using a probe adapter.

Tuesday, 12 August 2014

Top ten books to understand Food Texture Analysis

So you’re new to Food Texture Analysis? As a consumer, you’ll already appreciate that texture is a major determinant of food acceptance. 

Food companies use sensory evaluation panels to check the texture of their products for both product development and quality control purposes, but many companies supplement sensory evaluation with instrumental measurements.

You’ll no doubt want to educate yourself and obtain a background in the science of this field. Let me present the top ten books in our library that will help you become a ‘Texture Expert’...

Thursday, 7 August 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Fracture Wedge Set



Fracture test on cheese using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe FRACTURE WEDGE SET (A/WEG) comprises of upper and lower wedges each with a cutting angle of 30° and 30mm width. 

The lower wedge is fixed directly to the base of the Texture Analyser and the upper wedge is connected directly to the loadcell. 

Typical examples include cheese and vegetables which are held on the lower wedge and the force to fracture is measured. The maximum sample width is limited to 30mm.


Tuesday, 5 August 2014

Getting a hold on the texture of gluten free products


Hand crushing bread sliceI hadn't given my sister's Coeliac Disease much thought until she invited me for a Sunday tea party last weekend. 

Whilst, as a food scientist, I appreciated that she had some adapting to do in her diet, I hadn't fully appreciated just what a wide range of products she'd been through to select the products that were as close as possible to the palatability of the gluten-loaded products she used to enjoy.

When gluten is removed from baked products, taste and mouthfeel are usually compromised – and it’s difficult for consumers to find gluten-free alternatives that taste good and have desirable texture properties. Gluten-free bakery product formulations have the tendency to be dense, have no structure, crumble easily and are prone to quicker staling.  Bakery formulators are striving to find solutions to these problems and quantify the effects of their efforts.

Thursday, 31 July 2014

Measure Bending Force


Measurement of bending force and related properties using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserBENDING FORCE: the physical nature of some products make them more suitable for testing via a bending test. 

Generally the higher the force to bend (usually up to the point of break) the firmer the sample. 

The force and distance references at the point of break provide a measure of BREAK STRENGTH by this action.

STIFFNESS
is associated with a material that cannot easily be bent and therefore has a high degree of hardness and usually lacks flexibility.

FLEXIBILITY
is the opposite of this and is a characteristic of a product that can be bent, flexed or deformed to a much higher degree of deformation before failing. 

Tuesday, 29 July 2014

Getting your teeth into texture analysis of dental products


Chattering teeth
Why bother to floss? Periodontal disease is one of the most prevalent degenerative conditions in this country, afflicting adults beginning in their late 20's.

It is the disease that causes people to lose their teeth by slowly dissolving the supporting bone structure surrounding teeth. The most common symptoms of the disease are bad breath and bleeding gums.

 
Flossing is a simple oral hygiene procedure that, when performed daily, can ensure healthy gums and teeth that last a lifetime. Experts say it's as indispensable to a healthy mouth as brushing, yet most people find it uncomfortable and don't do it regularly. Modern dentistry and dental products have begun to address the problem of plaque buildup which causes periodontal disease.