How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Thursday, 18 December 2014

Texture Analysis in action: the Kieffer Dough and Gluten Extensibility Rig



Dough extensibility test using the TA.XTplus Texture AnalyserThe KIEFFER DOUGH & GLUTEN EXTENSIBILITY RIG (A/KIE) was invented by Dr. Kieffer at the Kurt-Hess Institute, Munich, as an improved method for the accurate determination of dough and gluten extensibility.

Parallel tests of dough and gluten can reveal particular characteristics arising from homogenisation, long relaxation times or from adding oxidants, salts, emulsifiers or enzymes.






Extensibility of dough/gluten using the Kieffer Dough & Gluten Extensibility Rig
Extensibility of dough/gluten using the 
Kieffer Dough & Gluten Extensibility Rig
Only small samples are required (approx. 10g flour or 1-2g gluten) which is of particular interest to wheat breeders requiring information of rheological qualities at an early stage for the development of hybrids.

In bakery, measurements of dough and gluten extensibility are important in pre-determining the rise qualities and structure of the finished product. The maximum force (resistance to extension) and distance to break (extensibility) are measured.

A large number of papers that use this fixture on a TA.XTplus Texture Analyser have been published, some examples of which are listed below: 

AAMODT, A., MAGNUS, E. M. & FAERGESTAD, E. M. (2003). Effect of flour quality, ascorbic acid, and DATEM on dough rheological parameters and hearth loaves characteristics. Journal of Food Science, 68 (7), 2201-2210.
 
AAMODT, A., MAGUNS, E. M., HOLLUNG, K., UHLEN, A. K. & FAEGSTAD, E. M. (2005). Dough and hearth bread characteristics influenced by protein composition, protein content, DATEM, and their interactions. Journal of Food Science, 70 (3), 214-221.
 
AAMODT, A., MAGNUS, E. M. & FAERGESTAD, E. M. (2004). Effect of protein quality, protein content, bran addition, DATEM, proving time and their interaction on hearth bread. Cereal Chemistry, 81 (6), 722-734.
 
AAMODT, A., MAGNUS, E. M. & FAERGESTAD, E. M. (2005). Hearth bread characteristics: Effect of protein quality, protein content, whole meal flour, DATEM, proving time and their interactions. Cereal Chemistry, 82 (3), 290-301.
 
ADAMS, K. M., LUKOW, O. M., WESLEY, A. S., DEXTER, J. E., MALCOLMSON, L. J., WATTS, B. M. & TOWNLEY-SMITH, F. (2000). Tortilla evaluation of Canadian hard white spring wheat. Poster presented at 85th AACC Annual Meeting, Kansas City, USA, Nov 5-9, 2000.
 
AL-SALEH, A., BRENNAN, C.S. (2012). Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples. MDPI Foods 2012, 1, 3-17.
 
ALVIOLA, J. N., JONDIKO, T. & AWIKA, J. M. (2010). Effect of cross-linked resistant starch on wheat tortilla quality. Cereal Chemistry, 87 (3), 221-225.
 
ALVIOLA, J. N. & AWIKA, J. M. (2010). Relationship between objective and subjective wheat flour tortilla quality evaluation methods. Cereal Chemistry, 87 (5), 481-485.
 
AMBALAMAATIL, S., LUKOW, O. M., DEXTER, J. E., HATCHER, D. W., MALCOLMSON, L. J. & WATTS, B. M. (2001). Influence of genotype and environment on Canadian hard white spring and hard red spring wheat quality. Paper presented at AACC Annual Meeting, 14-18 October, 2001, Charlotte, USA.
 
ANGIOLONI, A. & DALLA ROSA, M. (2006). Effects of cysteine and mixing conditions on white/whole dough rheological properties. Journal of Food Engineering, In Press.
 
ANGIOLONI, A. & COLLAR, C. (2009). Gel, dough and fibre enriched fresh breads: Relationships between quality features and staling kinetics. Journal of Food Engineering, 91 (4), 526-532.
 
ANGIOLONI, A. & COLLAR, C. (2008). Functional response of diluted dough matrixes in high-fibre systems: A viscometric and rheological approach. Food Research International, 41 (8), 803-812.
 
ANGIOLONI, A., BALESTRA, F., PINNAVAIA, G. G. & ROSA, M. D. (2008). Small and large deformation tests for the evaluation of frozen dough viscoelastic behaviour. Journal of Food Engineering, 87 (4), 527-531.
 
BASMAN, A., KOKSEL, H. & NG, P.K.W. (2003). Utilization of transglutaminase to increase the level of barley and soy flour incorporation in wheat flour breads. Journal of Food Science, 68 (8), 2453-2460.
 
BOLLAIN, C. & COLLAR, C. (2004). Dough viscoelastic response of hydrocolloid/enzyme/surfactant blends assessed by uni- and bi-axial extension measurements. Food Hydrocolloids, 18, 499-507.
 
BOLLAIN, C., ANGIOLONI, A. & COLLAR, C. (2006). Relationships between dough and bread viscoelastic properties in enzyme supplemented wheat samples. Journal of Food Engineering, 77 (3), 665-671.
 
BAUER, N., KOEHLER, P., WIESER, H. & SCHIEBERLE, P. (2003). Studies on effects of microbial transglutaminase on gluten proteins of wheat. II. Rheological properties. Cereal Chemistry, 80 (6), 787-790.
 
BRAUNSTEIN, D., PAGE, J.H, STRYBULEVYCH, A., PERESSINI, D., SCANLON, M.G., (2012). Assessment of breadmaking performance of wheat flour dough by means of frequency dependent ultrasound. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 42(1).

CAFFE-TREML, M., GLOVER, K., KRISHNAN, P., HARELAND, G., BONDALAPATI, K. & STEIN J. (2011). Effect of wheat genotype and environment on relationships between dough extensibility and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chemistry, 88 (2), 201-208.
 
CARR, L. G. & TADINI, C. C. (2003). Influence of yeast and vegetable shortening on physical and textural parameters of frozen part baked French bread. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol., 36, 609-614.
 
CLEARY, L. J., ANDERSSON, R. & BRENNAN, C. S. (2006). The behaviour and susceptibility to degradationof high and low molecular weight barley beta-glucan in wheat bread during baking and in vitro digestion. Food Chemistry, In Press.
 
COLLAR, C., ANDREU, P., MARTINEZ, J. C. & ARMERO (1999). Optimisation of hydrocolloid addition to improve wheat bread dough functionality: a response surface methodology study. Food Hydrocolloids, 13, 467-475.
 
COLLAR, C., SANTOS, E. & ROSELL, C. M. (2007). Assessment of the rheological profile of fibre-enriched bread doughs by response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78, 820-826.
 
COURTIN, C. M., VAN DEN BULCK, K. & DELCOUR, J. A. (1999). Understanding arabinoxylan functionality in bread making. Use of a combination of reconstitution and in vitro endoxylanase breakdown of water extractable and unextractable araboinoxylan in dough rheological measurements. Poster presented at 84th AACC Annual Meeting, Oct 31-Nov 3 1999, Seattle.
 
DOBRASZCZYK, B. & SALMANOWICZ, B. P. (2008). Comparison of predictions of baking volume using large deformation rheological properties. Journal of Cereal Science, 47 (2), 292-301.
 
DUNNEWIND, B., SLIWINSKI, E. L., GROLLE, K. & VAN VLIET, T. (2004). The Kieffer dough and gluten extensibility rig - an experimental evaluation. Journal of Texture Studies, 34, 537-560.
 
FERMIN, B. C., HAHM, T. S., RADINKSKY, J. A., KRATOCHVIL, R. J., HALL, J. E. & LO, Y. M. (2005). Effect of proline and glutamine on the functional properties of wheat dough in winter wheat varieties. Journal of Food Science, 70 (4), 273-278.
 
FLAETE, N. E. S., HOLLUNG, K., RUUD, L., SOGN, T., FAERGESTAD, E. M., SKARPEID, H. J., MAGNUS, E. M. & UHLEN, A. K. (2005). Combined nitrogen and sulphur fertilisation and its effect on wheat quality and protein composition measured by SE-FPLC and proteomics. Journal of Cereal Science, 41, 357-369.
 
GRAUSGRUBER, H., SCHOGGLl, G., & RUCKENBAUER, P. (2002). Investigations on the validity of the micro-extensigraph method to measure rheological properties of wheat doughs. European Food Research Technology, 214 (1), 79-82.
 
GRAUSGRUBER, H., KREUZMAYR, A. E. & RUCKENBAUER, P. (1999). Selection of the Baking Quality of Wheat. Workshop for Plantbreeding in Europe, BAL Gumpenstein, 23-25 Nov. 1999.
 
HAMER, R. J., WANG, M. W., VAN VLIET, T., GRUPPEN, H., MARSEILLE, J. P. & WEEGELS, P. (2000). Effect of water unextractable solids (WUS) on gluten formation and properties mechanistic considerations. Wheat gluten: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop Gluten 2000, University of Bristol, April 2000 (Ed. P. R. Shewry & A.S. Tatham), RSC, 2000, pp. 507-510.
 
HOU, G., KRUK, M., PETRUSICH, J. & COLLETTO, K. (1996). Measurement of the extensibility and tensile strength of dough and noodles. AACC Conference Paper, Baltimore, 1996.
 
HSAM, S. L. K., KIEFFER, R. & ZELLER, F. J. (2001). Significance of Aegilops tauschii glutenin genes on breadmaking properties of wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 78 (5), 521-525.
 
JONNALA, R. S., MACRITCHIE, F., SMAIL, V. W., SEABOURN, B. W., TILLEY, M., LAFIANDRA, D. & URBANO, M. (2010). Protein and quality characterisation of complete and partial near-isogenic lines of waxy wheat. Cereal Chemistry, 87 (6), 538-545.
 
KADDOUR, A. A., BARRON, C., MOREL, M. H. & CUQ, B. (2007). Dynamic monitoring of dough mixing using near-infrared spectroscopy: Physical and chemical outcomes. Cereal Chemistry, 84 (1), 70-79.
 
KATAGIRI, M. & KITABATAKE, N. (2009). Rheological properties of somen noodles - a traditional Japanese wheat product. Journal of Food Science, 75 (1), 51-58.
 
KIEFFER, R., WIESER, H., HENDERSON, M. H. & GRAVELAND, A. (1996). Characterisation of the processing properties of wheat flour by rheological measurements and baking tests on a micro-scale. AACC Conference Paper, Baltimore, 1996.
 
KIEFFER, R., WIESER, H., HENDERSON, M. H. & GRAVELAND, A. (1998). Correlations of the breadmaking performance of wheat flour with rheological measurements on a micro-scale. Journal of Cereal Science, 27 (1), 53-60.
 
KIEFFER, R. & STEIN, N. (1996). Investigations on the phenomenon of dough hardening during the processing of wheat doughs. AACC Conference Paper, Baltimore, 1996.
 
KIEFFER, R. & STEIN, N., (2000). Reliability of rheological data as a basis for the prediction of processing and baking properties of wheat flours. Paper presented at 2nd International Symposium on Food Rheology and Structure, 11-16 March 2000, Zurich.
 
KOEHLER, P., KIEFFER, R., WIESER, H. (2010). Effect of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the chemical and functional properties of wheat gluten III. Studies on gluten films. Journal of Cereal Science, 51 (1), 140-145.
 
LO, C. T. & RAMSDEN, L. (2000). Effects of xanthan and galactomannan on the freeze/thaw properties of starch gels. Nahrung, 44, 3, 211-214.
 
LOOSVELD, A.-M. A. & DELCOUR, J. A. (1999). The effects of wheat flour arabinogalactan-peptide on mixing characteristics of wheat flour dough and the resulting breads. Poster presented at 84th AACC Annual Meeting, Oct 31-Nov 3 1999, Seattle.
 
LUKOW, O. M., PRESTON, K. R., WATTS, B. M., MALCOLMSON, L. J. & CLOUTIER, S. (2001). Measuring the influence of wheat protein in breadmaking: from damage control to genetic manipulation of protein composition in wheat. Paper presented at AACC Annual Meeting, 14-18 October, 2001, Charlotte, USA.
 
MANN, G., LEYNE, E., LI, Z. & MORELL, M. K. (2005). Effects of novel barley, Himalaya 292, on rheological and breadmaking properties of wheat and barley doughs. Cereal Chemistry, 82 (6), 626-632.
 
MANN, G., DIFFEY, S., RAMPLING, L., NATH, Z., KUTTY, I., LEYNE, P. E., AZANZA, F., QUAIL, K. J., SMITH, A., CULLIS, B. & MORELL, M. K. (2008). Bubbles in Bread: Is the answer in the genes?. Taken from: Bubbles in Food 2, 307-310.
 
MATUDA, T. G., PARRA, D. F., LUGAO, A. B. & TADINI, C. C. (2005). Influence of vegetable shortening and emulsifiers on the unfrozen water content and textural properties of frozen French bread dough. LWT, 38, 275-280.
 
MILLER, R. (2011). Increased yield of bread containing citrus peel fiber. Cereal Chemistry, 88 (2), 174-178.
 
NASH, D., LANNING, S. P., FOX, P., MARTIN, J. M., BLAKE, N. K., SOUZA, E., GRAYBOSCH, R. A., GOROUX, M. J. & TALBERT, L. E. (2006). Relationship of dough extensibility to dough strength in a spring wheat cross. Cereal Chemistry, 83 (3), 255-258.
 
O'BRIEN, L., SHAH, S. H., BROWN, G. BELL, J., BARIANA, H., DINES, J., DE PALO, A. & LI, X. (1999). Relationships between small and large scale quality test values among soft wheat breeding lines grown in northern NSW. 48th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, 17-20 August 1998, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
 
PARK, S. J. & BAIK, B. K. (2009). Quantitative and qualitative role of added gluten on white salted noodles. Cereal Chemistry, 86 (6), 646-652.
 
PEIGHAMBARDOUST, S. H., VAN DER GOOT, A. J., VAN VLIET, T., HAMER, R. J. & BOOM, R. M. (2006). Microstructure formation and rheological behaviour of dough under simple shear flow. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 183-197.
 
PURCELL, U. G., DOBRASZCZYK, B., TSIAMI, A. A. & SCHOFIELD, J. D. (2000). Effects of adding gluten fractions on flour functionality. Wheat gluten: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop Gluten 2000, University of Bristol, April 2000 (Ed. P. R. Shewry & A.S. Tatham), RSC, 2000, pp. 412-416.
 
RIBOTTA, P. D., AUSAR, S. F., BELTRAMO, D. M. & LEON, A. E. (2005). Interactions of hydrocolloids and sonicated-gluten proteins. Food Hydrocolloids, 19, 93-99.
 
ROCCIA, P., RIBOTTA, P. D., PEREZ, G. T. & LEON, A. E. (2009). Influence of soy protein on rheological properties and water retention capacity of wheat gluten. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 42 (1), 358-362.
 
SALMANOWICZ, B.P., LANGNER, M., WISNIEWSKA, H., APOLINARSKA, B., KWIATEK, M., BLASZCZYK, L. (2013). Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 14, 15595-15614.
 
SCHILLING, G. R., KADIR, S. A. & TILLEY, K. A. (1999). Tortilla making quality of Kansas hard white wheats. Poster presented at 84th AACC Annual Meeting, Oct 31-Nov 3, Seattle, USA.
 
SCHLICHTING, L. M., LUKOW, O. M., HUSSAIN, A. & McKENZIE, R. I. H. (1996). Use of a micro-extensigraph method to examine the rheological properties of doughs and glutens from 10 cultivars with identical high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunit composition. AACC Conference Paper, Baltimore, 1996.
 
SCHOBER, T. J., BEAN, S. R., BOYLE, D. L. & PARK, S-H. (2008). Improved viscoelastic zein-starch doughs for leavened gluten-free breads: Their rheology and microstructure. Journal of Cereal Science, 48 (3), 755-767.
 
SELINHEIMO, E., KRUUS, K., BUCHERT, J., HOPIA, A. & AUTIO, K. (2006). Effects of laccase, xylanase and their combination on the rheological properties of wheat doughs. Journal of Cereal Science, 43, 152-159.
 
SERNA-SALDIVAR, S. O., GUAJARDO-FLORES, S. & VIESCA-RIOS, R. (2004). Potential of triticale as a substitute for wheat in flour tortilla production. Cereal Chemistry, 81 (2), 220-225.
 
SHAH, S. H., O'BRIEN, L., GRAS, P. W., LI, X., DE PALO, A., ROSS, D. S. & DINES, J. (1999). Heritability of small scale test procedures used in soft wheat evaluation. 48th Australian Cereal Chemistry Conference, 17-20 August 1998, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
 
SHARADANANT, R. & KHAN, K. (2003). Effect of hydrophilic gums on frozen dough. I. Dough quality. Cereal Chemistry, 80 (6), 764-772.
 
SHIAU, S. & CHANG, Y. (2013). Instrumental textural and rheological properties of raw, dried and cooked noodles with transglutaminase. International Journal of Food Properties, 16 (7), 1429-1441.
 
SIMURINA, O.D., POPOV, S.D., FILIPCEV, B.V., DODIC, J.M., BRODOZA-SOLAROV, M.I., DEMIN, M., NJEZIC, Z.B.(2012). Modelling the effects of Transglutaminase and L-Absorbic acid on standard quality wheat flour by response surface methodology.
 
SISSONS, M., ARAVIND, N. & FELLOWS, C. M. (2010). Quality of fiber-enriched spaghetti containing microbial transglutaminase. Cereal Chemistry, 87 (1), 57-64.
 
SMEWING, J. (1995). The Measurement of Dough and Gluten Extensibility Using the SMS/Kieffer Rig and The TA.XT2 Texture Analyser. Available from Stable Micro Systems Ltd.
 
SOH, H. N., SISSONS, M. J. & TURNER, M. A. (2006). Effect of starch granule size distribution and elevated amylose content on durum dough rheology and spaghetti cooking quality. Cereal Chemistry, 83 (5), 513-519.
 
SRINIVASAN, M., WANISKA, R. D. & ROONEY, L. W. (2000). Note. Effects of ingredients and processing on dough rheology of wheat flour tortillas. Food Science & Technology International, 6 (4), 331-338.
 
STEFFOLANI, M. E., RIBOTTA, P. D., PEREZ, G. T. & LEON, A. E. (2010). Effect of glucose oxidase, transglutaminase, and pentosanase on wheat proteins: Relationship with dough properties and bread-making quality. Journal of Cereal Science, 51 (3), 366-373.
 
SUCHY, J., LUKOW, O. M. & INGELIN, M. E. (1999). Dough microextensibilty method using a 2-g mixograph and a texture analyser. Cereal Chemistry, 77 (1), 39-43.
 
SYMONS, L. J. & BRENNAN, C. S. (2004). The influence of (1 >3) (1 >4)-B-D-Glucan-rich fractions from barley on the physicochemical properties and in vitro reducing sugar release of white wheat breads. Journal of Food Science, 69 (6), 463-467.
 
TRONSMO, K. M., MAGNUS, E. M., BAARDSETH, P., SCHOFIELD, J. D., AAMODT, A., & FAERGESTAD, E. M. (2003). Comparison of small and large deformation rheological properties of wheat dough and gluten. Cereal Chemistry, 80 (5), 587-595.
 
TRONSMO, K. M., FAERGESTAD, E. M., MAGNUS, E. M. & SCHOFIELD, J. D. (2000). Gluten quality vs quantity: rheology as the arbiter. Wheat gluten: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop Gluten 2000, University of Bristol, April 2000 (Ed. P. R. Shewry & A.S. Tatham), RSC, 2000, pp. 387-390.
 
TRONSMO, K. M., MAGNUS, E. M., FAERGESTAD, E. M., & SCHOFIELD, J. D. (2003). Relationships between gluten rheological properties and hearth loaf characteristics. Cereal Chemistry, 80 (5), 575-586.
 
TRONSMO, K. M., FAERGESTAD, E. M., MAGNUS, E. M. & SCHOFIELD, J. D. (2000). Rheology as a tool to assess the contributions of protein quality and quantity in relation to bread making. Poster presented at 85th AACC Annual Meeting, Kansas City, Nov 5-9, 2000.
 
TSENG, C. S., & LAI, H. M. (2002). Physicochemical properties of wheat flour dough modified by microbial transglutaminase. Journal of Food Science, 67 (2), 750-755.
 
VERBRUGGEN, I. M., VERAVERBEKE, W. S. & DELCOUR, J. A. (2000). Significance of high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits for dough extensibility. Wheat gluten: Proceedings of the 7th International Workshop Gluten 2000, University of Bristol, April 2000 (Ed. P. R. Shewry & A.S. Tatham), RSC, 2000, pp. 460-463.
 
WANG, M., VAN VLIET, T. & HAMER, R. J. (2005). Interaction of water unextractable solids and xylanase with gluten protein: effect of wheat cultivar. Journal of Cereal Science, 41, 251-258.
 
WANG, F. C. & SUN, X. S. (2002). Creep-recovery of wheat flour doughs and relationship to other physical dough tests and breadmaking performance. Cereal Chemistry, 79 (4), 567-571.
 
WANG, M., OUDGENOEG, G., VLIET, T. V. & HAMER, R. J. (2003). Interaction of water unextractable solids with gluten protein: effect on dough properties and gluten quality. Journal of Cereal Science, 38, 95-104.
 
WANG, M., VLIET, T. V. & HAMER, R. J. (2004). How gluten properties are affected by pentosans. Journal of Cereal Science, 39, 395-402.
 
YONG-QIANG. L., ZHU, R-J. & TIAN, J-C. (2008). Influence of wheat protein contents and fractions on dough rheological properties as determined by using a reconstitution method. Agricultural Sciences in China, 7 (4), 395-404.
 
YOON, S., ROH, H., CHOI, J. & PARK, J. (2003). Utilization and development of RVA-gluten acid method to detect the oxidation of wheat flour gluten protein Poster presented at IFT Meeting, Chicago, July 12-16, 2003.


We can design and manufacture probes or fixtures for the TA.XTplus texture analyser that are bespoke to your sample and its specific measurement.


Once your measurement is performed, our expertise in its graphical interpretation is unparalleled. Not only can we develop the most suitable and accurate method for the testing of your sample, but we can also prepare analysis procedures that obtain the desired parameters from your curve and drop them into a spreadsheet or report designed around your requirements.


For more information on how to measure texture, please visit the Texture Analysis Properties section on our website.

TA.XTplus texture analyser with bloom jar The
TA.XTplus texture analyser is part of a family of texture analysis instruments and equipment from Stable Micro Systems. An extensive portfolio of specialist attachments is available to measure and analyse the textural properties of a huge range of food products. Our technical experts can also custom design instrument fixtures according to individual specifications.

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