How to measure and analyse the texture of food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.

Thursday, 23 April 2015

Texture Analysis in Action: the Three Point Bend Rig

Biscuit fracture test using the TA.XTplus Texture Analyser
Small Three Point Bend Rig testing
biscuit fracture
The THREE POINT BEND RIGS supplied by Stable Micro Systems are of two types (A/3PB & HDP/3PB).

The large Three Point Bend Rig provides a base with graduated variable support length up to 240mm and accommodates samples up to 90mm wide.

The small
Three Point Bend Rig provides a variable support length up to 70mm for a sample width of up to 80mm.

Typical applications include measuring freshness (by assessment of rigidity or flexibility) of vegetables and the break strength (or brittleness) of bread sticks, biscuits and chocolate bars.

  Measurement of bend and fracture resistance of uncooked spaghetti  Measurement of fracture of breadsticks when subjected to three point bend
Measurement of fracture of breadsticks
when subjected to three point bend.
Click to view application video

Some more information on this fixture

Breaking strength/stress of rigid samples can be determined by performing a three-point bend test. This fixture supports the sample across a span of known distance. 

A force is applied to the centre of the sample (which is also central to the supports) and the breaking stress is determined. Such a test may, for example, be used to assess the effect of different ingredients used, or to examine typical finished product problems such as moisture uptake.

The breaking strength (force per unit width) or breaking stress (force per unit area) of the sample is taken as the maximum strength or stress value of the curve. Other textural characteristics that may be of interest are the distance to break and the gradient of the slope during application of force. 

The distance to break gives an indication of the brittleness of the sample as this shows how far a sample can be deformed before fracture. The gradient of the slope indicates sample toughness; the higher the gradient, the tougher the sample.

Banana ripeness measured on a TA.XTplus texture analyser
Large Three Point Bend Rig testing
banana ripeness
Three Point Bend test of plastic strip on
a TA.HDplus texture analyser

A Selection of Published Papers using this fixture/principle:
ABDEL-SAMIE, M. A-S., WAN, J., HUANG, W., CHUNG, O. K. & XU, B. (2010). Effects of cumin and ginger as antioxidants on dough mixing properties and cookie quality. Cereal Chemistry, 87 (5), 454-460.

ALVAREZ, M. D. & CANET, W. (2002). Effect of osmotic adjustment on the rheology of potato tissue. The use of discriminant analysis for interpretation. European Food Research & Technology, 214 (1), 83-90.

ANON (1996). Texture analysis for extruded products. Extrusion Communique Bio-Monthly, April, 18-20.

BIKA, D., TARDOS, G. I., PANMAI, S., FARBER, L. & MICHAELS, J. (2005). Strength and morphology of solid bridges in dry granules of pharmaceutical powders. Powder Technology, 150, 104-116.

BOOTH, D. A., MOBINI, S., EARL, T., & WAINWRIGHT, C. J. (2002). Consumer-specified instrumental quality of short-dough cookie texture using penetrometry and break force. Journal of Food Science, 68 (1), 382-387.

CASTRO-PRADA, E. M., LUYTEN, H., LICHTENDONK, W., HAMER, R. J. & VAN VLIET, T. (2007). An improved instrumental characterisation of mechanical and acoustic properties of crispy cellular solid food. Journal of Texture Studies, 38, 698-724.

CHANG, Y. P., CHEAH, P. B. & SEOW, C. C. (2000). Variations in flexural and compressive fracture behaviour of a brittle cellular food (dried bread) in response to moisture sorption. Journal of Texture Studies, 31, 525-540.

CHEN, J., KARLSSON, C. & POVEY, M. (2005). Acoustic envelope detector for crispness assessment of biscuits. Journal of Texture Studies, 36, 139-156.

CHIONH, K. M., FLY, A. D., BRAUN, M. M. & STEVENSON, S. R. (1999). Effects of soy protein concentrate on physical and sensory characteristics of bar and drop cookies. Paper presented at IFT Annual Meeting, Chicago, USA, July 24-28, 1999.

CLAYTOR, S. D. (1996). Novel, extruded foods from corn. Poster presented at AACC meeting, Baltimore, September, 1996.

CONFORTI, P. A. & LUPANO, C. E. (2004). Functional properties of biscuits with whey protein concentrate and honey. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39, 745-753.

COOPER, N. T. W., SIBENMORGEN, T. J. & COUNCE, P. A. (2008). Effects of Nighttime Temperature During Kernel Development on Rice Physicochemical Properties. Cereal Chemistry, 85 (3), 276-282.

CORLISS, G. A., PAESCHKE, T. M. & BISHAY, I. E. (1999). Cake and cookie micro testing method for use in screening experimental ingredients in sucrose replacement. Poster presented at 84th AACC Annual Meeting, Oct 31-Nov 3, Seattle, USA.

DEBNATH, S., BHAT, K. K. & RASTOGI, N. K. (2003). Effect of pre-drying on kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of chickpea flour-based snack food. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol,. 36, 91-98.

DE PILLI, T., CARBONE, B. F., DEROSSI, A., FIORE, A. G. & SEVERINI, C. (2008). Effects of operating conditions on oil loss and structure of almond snacks. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 43, 430-439.

DESMET, M., LAMMERTYN, J., VAN LINDEN, V., VERLINDEN, B. E., DARIUS, P. & NICOLAI, B. M. (2004). The relative influence of stem and fruit properties on stem puncture injury in tomatoes. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 33, 101-109.

DOLORES- ALVAREZ, M., SAUNDERS, D. E. J., VINCENT, J. F. V & JERONIMIDIS, G. (2000). An engineering method to evaluate the crisp texture of fruit and vegetables. Journal of Texture Studies, 31, 457-473.

DRACA, N., TIKVICA, A., ELJUGA, D., SEMENSKI, D., BRNCIC, M. & VUKICEVIC, S. (2011). Biomechanical properties of bones from rats treated with sevelamer. Collegium Antropologicum, 35 (2), 557-563.

DRISYA, C.R., SWETHA, B.G., VELU, V., INDRANI, D., SINGH, R.P. (2013). Effect of dried Murraya koenigii leaves on nutritional, textural and organoleptic characeteristics of cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology.

DURBIN, S.M., JACKSON, J.R., RYAM, M.J., GIGLIOTTI, J.C., ALWAYS, S.E., TOU, J.C. (2013). Resveratrol supplementation preserves long bone mass, microstructure, and strength in hindlimb-suspended old male rats. Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism, 10.1007/s00774-013-0469-2.

EVERARD, C. D., O'CALLAGHAN, D. J., O'KENNEDY, B. T., O'DONNELL, C. P., SHEEHAN, E. M. & DELAHUNTY, C. M. (2007). A three-point bending test for prediction of sensory texture in processed cheese. Journal of Texture Studies, 38, 438-456.

FARBER, L., HAPGOOD, K. P., MICHAELS, J. N., FU, X., MEYER, R., JOHNSON, M. & LI, F. (2008). Unified compaction curve model for tensile strength of tablets made by roller compaction and direct compression. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 346 (1), 17-24.

GIMENO, E., MORARU, C. I. & KOKINI, J. L. (2004). Effect of xanthan gum and CMC on the structure and texture of corn flour pellets expanded by microwave heating. Cereal Chemistry, 81 (1), 100-107.

HAN, L., HUFF, H. E. & HSIEH, F. (2008). Production of Oat Cakes from Extruded Pellets. Cereal Chemistry, 85 (4), 522-529. 

HARTEL, R. W. & DEYMONAZ, C. (2001). Polyols and bulking agents in sugarfree chocolate. Manufacturing Confectionery, 81 (6), 81-92.

HIX, D. K., KLOPFENSTEIN, C. F. & WALKER, C. E. (1997). Physical and chemical attributes and consumer acceptance of sugar-snap cookies containing naturally occurring antioxidants. Cereal Chemistry, 74 (3), 281-283.

IKOKO, J. & KURI, V. (2006). Osmotic pre-treatment effect on fat intake reduction and eating quality of deep-fried plantain. Food Chemistry, In Press.

JORGE, M. C., RODRIGUEZ, I., HOMBRE, R. De (1999). Evaluation of an instrumental method of texture analysis for quality control of chocolate bars. Alimentaria, 36 (305), 73-76.

JYOTHI, A. N., SHERIFF, J. T. & SAJEEV, M. S. (2009). Physical and functional properties of arrrowroot starch extrudates. Journal of Food Science, 74 (2), 97-104.

KATAYAMA, M. & WILSON, L. A. (2008). Utilization of Okara, a Byproduct from Soymilk Production, through the Development of Soy-Based Snack Food. Journal of Food Science, 73 (3), 152-157.

LAGUNA, L., PRIMO-MARTIN, C., SALVADOR, A., SANZ, T. (2013). Inulin and Erythritol As Sucrose Replacers in Short-dough Cookies: Sensory, Fracture, and Acoustic Properties. Journal of Food Science, 78(5), S777-S784.

LEMUZ, C. R., PRUITT, L. E., FALLER, J. F., ECKHOFF, S. R. & RAUSCH, K. D. (2000). Dry milling and extrusion performance of corn meal obtained from specific corn hybrids. Poster presented at 85th AACC Annual Meeting, Kansas City, USA, Nov 5-9, 2000.

MARTINEZ-NAVARRETE, N., MORAGA, G., TALENS, P. & CHIRALT, A. (2004). Water sorption and the plasticization effect in wafers. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 39, 555-562.

MILLER, R. W., GUPTA, A. (2004). Roller compaction: A PAT application using near-infrared in-process mapping, monitoring and characterisation. American Pharmaceutical Review, 69-76, 103.

MOIRAGHI, M., VANZETTI, L., BAINOTTI, C., HELGUERA, M., LEON, A. & PEREZ, G. (2011). Relationship between soft wheat flour physicochemical composition and cookie-making performance. Cereal Chemistry, 88 (2), 130-136.

MULLERS, K.C., WAHL, M.A., PINTO, J.F. (2013). Production of dosage forms for oral drug delivery by laminar extrusion of wet masses. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biophamaceutics, 84(3), 626-632.

NAM, S., SCANLON, M. G., HAN, J. H. & IZYDORCZYK, M. S. (2007). Extrusion of Pea Starch Containing Lysozyme and Determination of Antimicrobial Activity. Journal of Food Science, 72 (9), 477-484.

O'BRIEN, C. M., CHAPMAN, D., NEVILLE, D. P., KEOGH, M. K., ARENDT, E. K. (2003). Effect of varying the microencapsulation process on the functionality of hydrogenated vegetable fat in shortdough biscuits. Food Research International, 36, 215-221.

OHM, J. B., ROSS, A. S., PETERSON, C. J. & MORRIS, C. F. (2009). Relationships of quality characteristics with size-exclusion HPLC chromatogram of protein extract in soft white winter wheats. Cereal Chemistry, 86 (2), 197-203.

PALAZOGLU, T., COSKUN, Y., KOCADAGLI, T. & GOKMEN, V. (2012). Effect of radio frequency postdrying of partially baked cookies on acrylamide content, texture, and color of the final product. Journal of Food Science, 77 (5), E113-E126.

PLUNKETT, A., AINSWORTH, P. & FULLER, D. (1999). The effect of fermentation on bubble formation and structural properties of an extruded cereal product. In: Bubbles in Food (Ed. G.M. Campbell, C. Webb, S.S. Pandiella & K. Niranjan), 21-31.

PONSART, G., VASSEUR, J. & MEOT, J. M. (2000). Evaluation du 'taux' de fissuration de pates sechees. 12th Agoral Meeting, April 2000, Montpellier, pp 277-283.

RANHOTRA, G. S., GELROTH, J. A. & LEINEN, S. D. (1999). Increase in bone calcification in young rats fed breads highly fortified with calcium. Cereal Chemistry, 76 (3), 325-327. 

QUAST, L., LUCCAS, V., RIBEIRO, A., CARDOSO, L. & KIECKBUSCH, T. (2013). Physical properties of tempered mixtures of cocoa butter. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 48 (8), 1579-1588.

RIGOLETTO, R., ALBANESE, J., WOSSENE, S., SUBRAMANIAN, S. & CLEMENTS, N. (2007). Polyquaternium-69: A new fixative polymer with enhanced styling benefits. Cosmetic Science Technology, 142-155.

RYAN, K. J. & BREWER, M. S. (2006). Physical properties of sugar-snap cookies using granule surface deproteinated wheat starch. Journal of Texture Studies, 37, 442-457.

SALEEM, Q. (2005). Mechanical and fracture properties for predicting cracking in semi-sweet biscuits. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40, 361-367.

SALEEM, Q., WILDMAN, R. D., HUNTLEY, J. M. & WHITWORTH, M. B. (2005). Material properties of semi-sweet biscuits for finite element modelling of biscuit cracking. Journal of Food Engineering, 68, 19-32.
SAMPATH, T., SIMIC, P., MORENO, S., BUKANOV, N., DRACA, N., KUFNER, V., TIKVICA, A., BLAIR, A., SEMENSKI, D., BRNCIC, M, BURKE, S. & VUKICEVIC. (2008). Sevelamer restores bone volume and improves bone microarchitecture and strength in aged ovariectomized rats. Endocrinology, 149 (12), 6092-6102.

SANCHEZ, C., KLOPFENSTEIN, C. F. & WALKER, C. E. (1995). Use of Carbohydrate-Based Fat Substitutes and Emulsifying Agents in Reduced-Fat Shortbread Cookies. Cereal Chemistry, 72 (1), 25-29.

SHARMA, S.K., MULVANEY, S.J., RIZVI, S.S.H. (1999). Material testing and rheology of solid foods. In: Food process engineering: theory and laboratory experiments (Ed. S. K. Sharma, S. J. Mulvaney, S. S. H. Rizvi) Wiley-Interscience, pp 20-50.
STOJCESKA, V., AINSWORTH, P., PLUNKETT, A., IBANOGLU, E. & IBANOGLU, S. (2008). Cauliflower by-products as a new source of dietary fibre, antioxidants and proteins in cereal based ready-to-eat expanded snacks. Journal of Food Engineering, 87 (4), 554-563.

SUDHA, M. L, SRIVASTAVA, A. K, VETRIMANI, R. & LEELAVATHI, K. (2007). Fat replacement in soft dough biscuits: Its implications on dough rheology and biscuit quality. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 922-930.

SWANSON, R. B., CARDEN, L. A. & PARKS, S. S. (1999). Effect of a carbohydrate-based fat substitute and emulsifying agents on reduced-fat peanut butter cookies. Journal of Food Quality, 22, 19-29.

TOMA, A., OMARY, M. B., MARQUART, L. F., ARNDT, E. A., ROSENTRATER, K. A., BURNS-WHITMORE, B., KESSLER, L., HWAN, K., SANDOVAL, A. & SUNG, A. (2009). Children's Acceptance, Nutritional, and Instrumental Evaluations of Whole Grain and Soluble Fiber Enriched Foods. Journal of Food Science, 74 (5), 139-146.

VINCENT, J. F. V. & SAUNDERS, D. E. J. (2002). The use of critical stress intensity factor to quantify "hardness" and "crunchiness" objectively. Journal of Texture Studies, 33, 149-159.

WALTER, W. M., TRUONG, V. D. & ESPINEL, K. R. (2002). Textural measurements and product quality of restructured sweetpotato french fries. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft u. Technol., 35 (3), 209-215.

WEHRLE, K., GALLAGHER, E., NEVILLE, D. P., KEOGH, M. K. & ARENDT, E. K. (1999). Microencapsulated high-fat powders in biscuit production. Z. Lebensm. Unters. Forsch., 208, 388-393.

YEO, L. L. & SEIB, P. A. (2009). White pan bread and sugar-snap cookies containing wheat starch phosphate, a cross-linked resistant starch. Cereal Chemistry, 86 (2), 210-220.

YULIANI, S., TORLEY, P. J., D'ARCY, B., NICHOLSON, T. & BHANDARI, B.(2006). Effect of extrusion parameters on flavour retention, functional and physical properties of mixtures of starch and d-limonene encapsulated in milk protein. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 41, 83-94.
YULIANI, S., TORLEY, P. J., D'ARCY, B., NICHOLSON, T. & BHANDARI, B. (2006). Extrusion of mixtures of starch and D-limonene encapsulated with beta-cyclodextrin: Flavour retention and physical properties. Food Research International, 39 (3), 318-331.

ZHANG, Q., YANG, W. & SUN, Z. (2005). Mechanical properties of sound and fissured rice kernels and their implications for rice breakage. Journal of Food Engineering, 68, 65-72.

ZHUANG, H., FENG, T., XIE, Z., TOURE, A., XU, X., JIN, Z. & SU, Q. (2010). Effect of Mesona Blumes gum on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rice extrudates. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 45, 2415-2424.

We can design and manufacture probes or fixtures
for the TA.XTplus texture analyser that are bespoke to your sample and its specific measurement.

Once your measurement is performed, our expertise in its graphical interpretation is unparalleled. Not only can we develop the most suitable and accurate method for the testing of your sample, but we can also prepare analysis procedures that obtain the desired parameters from your curve and drop them into a spreadsheet or report designed around your requirements.

For more information on how to measure texture, please visit the Texture Analysis Properties section on our website.

TA.XTplus texture analyser with bloom jar The
TA.XTplus texture analyser is part of a family of texture analysis instruments and equipment from Stable Micro Systems. An extensive portfolio of specialist attachments is available to measure and analyse the textural properties of a huge range of food products. Our technical experts can also custom design instrument fixtures according to individual specifications.

No-one understands texture analysis like we do!

To discuss your specific test requirements click here...

Watch our video about texture analysisDownload more detailed information about texture analysis in the food industryBrowse our range of texture analysis testing solutions

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